Ground School: Ice Flying: Strategies or “You’re as cold as ice”

Ground School: Ice Flying: Strategies or “You’re as cold as ice”

As per some previous discussions on our Discord and some very alarming PIREPs during these winter months at AKV we are happy to bring you what we can in the way of tips to avoid crashes or stalls due to icing conditions in the air. By no means is this our condoning flying in visible moisture during icing conditions, the best defense against icing starts on the ground with a forecast after all.

This guide will not go into depth about why icing occurs nor will it cover anti-ice equipment. Simply “what to do when you’ve got ice” Sometimes these situations are unavoidable and a lot of times IFR can lead to icing unexpectedly. Without further ado:

“Ice Flying”: The Strategy

Smart “ice flying” begins on the ground. For VFR flight operations, with the exceptions of freezing rain, freezing drizzle, and carburetor icing, staying clear of the clouds by a safe margin solves the icing problem. For pilots choosing to go IFR, it becomes more complicated.

Use the many resources available to you:

Television

Direct User Access Terminal (DUAT) system

Flight Service stations

ADDS (Aviation Digital Data Service) found online at https://www.aviationweather.gov/adds/

AOPA Online https://www.aopa.org/

Aviation Weather Center’s current icing potential (CIP) http://aviationweather.gov

Continue to request pilot reports—and make some of your own—along your route if you suspect icing to be a potential problem. Ask the right questions, and remember that conditions that appear to be similar to weather you’ve dealt with before may be much different.

Where are the fronts? Know the big picture because most ice is in fronts and low-pressure centers.

Where are the fronts moving? Where will they be when I depart and when I arrive? Check “upstream” weather reports and trends. If the destination is Cincinnati, what’s the weather in Indianapolis 100 miles to the northwest? Remember that forecasts are not guarantees and plan accordingly.

Where are the cloud tops? You cannot climb through a front with tops to 30,000 feet. For most light non-turbocharged aircraft, once the tops reach 8,000 feet, climbing is no longer an option. Once on top, can you stay on top? Expect much higher clouds over mountains.

Where are the cloud bases? Below the clouds where freezing rain or freezing drizzle is not present, there will be no structural icing.

Where is the warm air? If the freezing level is high enough above the IFR minimum en route altitude (MEA), the flight may be feasible. However, air traffic control may not be able to guarantee you the MEA due to traffic or conflicts with other sectors. If it’s freezing on the surface and the clouds are close to the surface and more than a few thousand feet thick, it is foolish to attempt to climb through to clear conditions on top.

Air mass clouds or frontal clouds? Know the difference between air mass clouds and frontal clouds. Frontal clouds are usually indicative of large areas of significant weather, so an aircraft flying through frontal clouds can be exposed to icing conditions for a longer period of time. Air mass clouds may have snow showers but do not have large areas of steady snow. Unless you are flying in the mountains, steady snow or rain means significant weather is building.

With the exceptions of freezing rain and freezing drizzle, the only way to gather structural ice is in an actual cloud. Flying in snow or between cloud layers will not cause structural ice, although wet snow may adhere to the aircraft.

What alternate routes are available? Flying the flatlands with lower MEAs is likely to provide much better weather, a smoother ride, and less ice than the same trip over the mountains. Detour if necessary. Avoid flying south through a front that is 200 miles long when you could fly west and be through it in 35 miles.

What are the escape routes? At any time during a flight where structural ice is a possibility, you need an alternate plan of action. That could be a climb, descent, 180-degree turn, or immediate landing at a nearby airport. It will depend on traffic, terrain, cloud conditions, visibility, and availability of suitable airports. Quickly tell ATC you are in ice and want out. Ask for a higher or lower altitude or a 180-degree turn. If ATC won’t let you climb due to traffic, let them know that you are willing to accept a climb at any heading.

What pireps are available? Pay particular attention to pireps. Because icing is forecast for extremely broad areas, pireps may be the only information you’ll have as to where the ice is actually occurring. They tell you what the conditions really were at a particular time in a specific place. Think about whether those conditions are likely to be duplicated during your flight. How will you handle it? What are your escape plans?

Pireps are individual judgment calls, so having several for the same area will usually result in a better picture. Be prepared for surprises if you rely on just one pirep. The type of aircraft making the pirep is also critical. When jets or turboprops report moderate ice or worse, that’s a mandate for light aircraft to plan a different strategy immediately. Turbine-powered airplanes are equipped for flight into icing conditions and have much higher performance to punch through an icing layer quickly. A “light” ice report from turbine aircraft may mean moderate ice for you. How old is the pirep? Weather moves and changes, so a report more than 45 minutes old may be of limited use.

The Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) defines how in-flight icing should be reported when filing a pirep:

  • Trace: Ice becomes perceptible. Rate of accumulation is slightly greater than the rate of sublimation.
  • Light: The rate of accumulation may create a problem if flight is prolonged in this environment (over one hour). Occasional use of deicing/anti-icing equipment removes/prevents accumulation. It does not present a problem if the deicing/anti-icing equipment is used.
  • Moderate: The rate of accumulation is such that even short encounters become potentially hazardous and use of deicing/anti-icing equipment or flight diversion is necessary.
  • Severe: The rate of accumulation is such that deicing/anti-icing equipment fails to reduce or control the hazard. An immediate flight diversion is necessary.

 

“Ice Flying”: The Tactics

(In-flight portions of this section are intended for aircraft that are certified for flight into known icing conditions. Non-certified aircraft must exit any icing conditions immediately.)

 

Preflight

Carry extra fuel. In icing conditions, extra power is needed because of increased aerodynamic drag and/or because carburetor heat is used. Fuel consumption will increase.

Other than extra fuel, keep the aircraft as light as possible. The more weight to carry, the slower the climb and the more time spent in ice.

Remove all frost, snow, or ice from the wings. There is no point in starting the day with two strikes against you. Every winter there are “frostbitten” pilots who crash as a result of guessing how much frost their aircraft will carry. A perfectly clean wing is the only safe wing. Don’t count on blowing snow off when taking off. There could be some nasty sticky stuff underneath the snow. If you think it’s light enough to blow off, it should be very easy to brush off before starting. Do it!

The propeller(s) must be dry and clean. Check the controls to be sure there is freedom of movement in all directions.

Check the landing gear (especially retractables) and clean off all accumulated slush. wheel fairings on fixed-gear aircraft should be removed in winter operations because they are slush collectors. Be sure to check wheel wells for ice accumulation. This is always a good idea after taxiing through slush.

Be sure that deice and anti-ice equipment works. When was the last time you actually checked the pitot heat for proper functioning?

 

Taxiing

Taxi slowly on icy taxiways. The wind may become a limiting factor because the ability to steer and counteract weathervaning tendencies is poor. Tap the brakes lightly and briefly. Hard braking pressure will lock the wheels, resulting in a skid. If the runup area is slick, it may be impossible to run the engine up without sliding. It might be better to stop on the taxiway, leave room to slide, and watch where you’re going. If there is a dry patch of pavement, stop there to do the runup.

Make sure the wing tips and tail are clear of any snow piled up along the edge of the taxiways.

 

Departure

Know where the cloud bases and the tops are, and check for recent pireps. If you encounter icing conditions, have a plan either to return to the departure airport or climb above the ice. If you decide to return, be sure you can safely fly the approach in the existing weather conditions. In either case, advise ATC you will need clearance to proceed as soon as possible. If there is heavy traffic, there may be some delay. If you don’t factor this into the plan, you are not prepared.

You may want to cycle the landing gear after takeoff to help shed ice from the landing gear.

During climb, even though you are anxious to get out of icing, do not climb too steeply because ice can form on the underside of the wing behind the boot. Remember that as the ice accumulates on the underside of the wing, drag increases, sometimes dramatically. Do not lose control of the aircraft.

 

En Route

Make pireps as you go and ask for them en route. Talk to ATC and flight service about any weather developments or forecast changes. All the cautions about pireps mentioned earlier apply here.

Airspeed is a key to measuring ice accumulation. If normal cruise speed is 140 KIAS and you notice the airspeed has dropped to 130 KIAS, it’s time to exit immediately. If you can’t climb or descend, then a 180-degree turn is the only option, and that will result in a loss of at least another 10 KIAS until you’re out of the ice. A 20-knot drop in airspeed is plenty. Add power to increase airspeed, since stall speed margins shrink with speed loss. Speed discipline is essential in icing conditions. The lower the performance of the aircraft, the less airspeed loss can be tolerated. Remember, an aircraft not certified for flight into icing conditions should start working to get out of those conditions at the first sign of ice.

At the first sign of ice accumulation, decide what action you need to take and advise ATC. Do you know where warmer air or a cloud-free altitude is? If you need to modify your route to avoid ice, be firm with ATC about the need to change altitude or direction as soon as possible. Don’t wait until the situation deteriorates; start working with ATC early. If you need to declare an emergency to solve the problem, do it. This is a far better alternative than crashing.

If you’re on top of a cloud layer and can stay on top, ask ATC for a climb well before getting into the clouds. Icing is much worse in the tops of the clouds. If you’re in the clouds and the temperature is close to freezing, ask for a top report ahead. This tells you whether going up is a better option than descending. In a low-power aircraft, climbing through a 3,000- foot icing layer to get on top is chancy.

If flying around mountains, be extra cautious. The air being lifted up the mountain slopes by the wind (called orographic lifting) is known to produce moderate to severe icing conditions.

Expect severe icing potential when flying over or when downwind of the Great Lakes and other large bodies of water. The air is extremely moist, and if the temperatures are freezing or below, the clouds can be loaded with ice.

Do not use the autopilot when in icing conditions. It masks the aerodynamic effects of the ice and may bring the aircraft into a stall or cause control problems. The situation can degrade to the point that autopilot servo control power is exceeded, disconnecting the autopilot. The pilot is then faced with an immediate control deflection for which there was no warning or preparation.

 

Approach and Landing

Most icing accidents occur in the approach and landing phases of flight. If on top of ice-laden clouds, request ATC’s permission to stay on top as long as possible before having to descend. When carrying ice do not lower the flaps. The airflow change resulting from lowering the flaps may cause a tail with ice accretion to stall. Remember the stall speed is increased when carrying a load of ice, and the stall margin is reduced when you slow to land. If the aircraft is iced up, carry extra power and speed on final approach—at least 10 to 20 knots more speed than usual. Do not use full flaps when carrying this extra speed, or a tail stall may occur. Remember, speed discipline is essential in icing conditions. Most icing accidents occur when the aircraft is maneuvering to land. Be very cautious of turns. The stall potential is high. If you have a choice of airports, use the longest runway possible, even if it means renting a car to get home. A 3,000-foot strip is not the place to go when carrying ice, even though it might be twice the runway you normally use. Because of increased airspeed and a no-flap configuration, the landing distance will be much longer than normal. If there is ice aloft, frequently there may be ice on the runway as well, which greatly increases stopping distance.

If you are unfortunate enough to have an inadvertent icing encounter in an aircraft without windshield anti-ice, turn the defroster on high to possibly keep a portion of the windshield clear. Turn off the cabin heat if that will provide more heat to the windshield.

If the windshield is badly iced, open the side window and attempt to scrape away a small hole using an automotive windshield ice scraper, credit card, or other suitable object. You may damage the windshield, but the alternative could be much worse.

Do not lose control of the aircraft when removing ice from the windshield.

 

Immediate: A Word to Live By

Pilots are invariably better judges of their flight environment than controllers, but sometimes pilots have difficulty expressing their predicament to ATC. We want to exit icing conditions as soon as possible, but ATC may delay our request for any number of reasons. Now there is a way, short of declaring an emergency, for pilots to get expeditious handling. Requesting an immediate climb, descent, or turn lets the controller know that unless the request is handled quickly an emergency situation will likely develop.

Ground School: How to taxi the DC-3 or “Gooneybird feet”

Ground School: How to taxi the DC-3 or “Gooneybird feet”

No matter how many times we have flown the airlines in real life, we would be hard pressed to recall the last time that we boarded an aircraft at the end of the runway. It’s time to expose the mystery of taxiing the flightsim DC-3, and begin or end the flights properly… at the terminal!

Initially, one is baffled. What’s the big deal about turning a DC-3 while departing from a gate or entering a runway? turn left, left rudder; turn right, right rudder.
It’s not that simple, for two reasons:

  • At slow speeds, insufficient air flows past the rudder for it to be effective.
  • The DC-3’s rudder is small for the size of the aircraft.

This unhappy situation leaves us with two controls to steer the aircraft: the engines and the brakes. Effective use of them, however, especially together, can give us a much sharper turning radius than with a tricycle gear aircraft. So let’s mount our trusty DC-3 and find out whether a mortal truly can taxi her.

Before we taxi out to the tarmac to give it a go, understand two basic principles:

  • Use the inside brake, the one nearest the center of the circle, to turn.
  • Use the outside engine, the one farthest from the center of the circle, to turn.

Not a bit of that information is useful, though, until we solve the visibility problem while taxiing the DC-3. All we can see is the sky. Trust me, nothing will quite ruin our day so much as taxing into a fuel truck. Well, taxiing into the boss’ office is a close second.

So, change that viewpoint! Dedicate one for taxi and make sure it has good side to side vision as well.

Ok, send all the gigglers away and we’ll get started. First, though, be aware that taxiing is ever so much simpler and more enjoyable if you have rudder pedals. Plus pedals greatly add to the realism of flight (and you’ll finally discover what that ball in the Turn and Bank indicator is present for.) But be certain that the pedals can operate the aircraft’s brakes, too.

Satisfactory ground steering is impossible unless the Rudder Auto-coordination is off, in X-Plane this means binding your rudder controls.

 

Brakes-Only steering.

Let’s begin with brakes-only steering. To clear the airport of all other aircraft, we affix a “Student Pilot” sign to each side of our fuselage, in such a position to cover the AKV logo. Next, we move the aircraft to a runway. Adjust your view and set the props to the High RPM position. For this situation, leave the engine controls locked so that both throttles advance together, etc. Now advance the throttles sufficiently to taxi down the runway at 15 to 20 kts. Easy on the speed, though … nothing quite so embarrassing as lifting off while taxiing.

NOTE: Flightsim brakes differ from those on a real aircraft or from those in your car … they are digital, either fully on or fully off. However, if you use rudder pedals, or a script (and in certain aircraft) proportional braking is available.

Follow this routine

Taxi to the turn-off, and tap the left brake to turn left. If you have rudder pedals, also apply the left rudder pedal. Proceed down the taxiway and again tap the left brake, and apply the left rudder pedal, to turn left toward the beginning of the runway. Using the sims “slew” command, Rotate the aircraft 180 degrees and repeat the above taxi maneuver but in the opposite direction, which requires right turns.

 

Power-Only steering.

We’ll repeat the procedures we just did for brakes-only steering, but this time we will control the aircraft’s direction with its engines. Again move the aircraft to the runway and verify that the power controls are able to move independently.
Increase the throttles to begin your straight-ahead taxi up the runway, about 10 to 12 knots is a good speed. As you near the turn off, slowly increase the power on the right engine to navigate the turn. You can synch the two throttles together again for the straight portion of the taxi if you wish, as you near the runway, unsynch the power controls, and control the left turn by adjusting power to the right engine, and taxi to the end of the runway.

Again rotate the aircraft by “slewing” it to the runway and repeat this procedure in the opposite direction, controlling the left engine for the right turns.
If you have rudder pedals, apply left rudder when turning left, and right rudder when turning right. The newer versions of the DC-3 have steerable tail wheels to assist in steering.

 

Brakes and power-control for steering.

This method gives the most control to turn the DC-3. Move the aircraft to the runway, synch the power controls, then taxi up the runway until near the turn off. unsynch the power controls, tap the left brake and carefully apply power to the right engine to accurately control the turn onto the taxiway. Repeat that procedure for entering the runway with another left turn.
Lastly, move the aircraft to the runway and repeat this procedure rotated, making right turns by tapping the right brake, and increasing power to the left engine.

 

Homework

1) Taxi twice in each direction using Brakes-Only steering.
2) Taxi twice in each direction using Power-Only steering.
3) Taxi four times in each direction using Differential steering.

ICAO flight plans will be mandatory for both VFR and IFR flight plans starting August 27th.

ICAO flight plans will be mandatory for both VFR and IFR flight plans starting August 27th.

The FAA will transition to mandatory use of the international flight plan format for all IFR and VFR domestic and international civil flights on August 27, 2019. The change is part of an effort to modernize and streamline flight planning and supports the FAA’s NextGen initiatives. Several improvements to the international form make it easier and more intuitive for pilots to use and will increase safety, including an increase in the size of the departure and destination fields to allow a greater variety of entry types, including Special Flight Rules Area (SFRA) flight plans.

Many resources and videos are available to help you setup your preferred flight planning tools. See the links below:

Help with an ICAO Flight Plan (FAA document)

The ICAO Flight Plan (AOPA video)

Setting up ICAO Flight Plans – ForeFlight app (video)

Setting up ICAO Flight Plans – Garmin Pilot app (video)

Setting up ICAO Flight Plans – Leidos (video)

Setting up ICAO Flight Plans –

ForeFlight, Garmn Pillot and FltPlan.com (iPad News)

Setting up ICAO Data at FltPlan.com (video)

AKV Blog Returns!

We are not dead yet, sorry for the long absence but we had a few bugs and quirks to work out before the blog could return to us.

Watch this space 😀

Ground School: Seaplanes: Taxi & Takeoff, or “Get your floaties on”

Ground School: Seaplanes: Taxi & Takeoff, or “Get your floaties on”

Seaplanes and X-Plane 
Originally by Chuck Bodeen with edits for XP11 by yours truely 😉

SMS_Beaver_Amphib_3

PECULIARITIES OF SEAPLANES
Once a seaplane is in the water and released from contact with a dock it is subject to weathervaning which is the tendency of the plane to face the wind. Its the same physical principle that keeps an arrow going straight ahead. The strength of this effect depends upon how much of the plane is behind the center of buoyancy.

Susitna_TMO_2007280

WEATHERVANING

Wheeled airplanes tend to pivot on the main landing gear wheels. Tail wheel planes have more side area exposed to the wind behind the main gear and are more subject to weathervaning than planes with tricycle gear. For seaplanes, the pivot is around the center of buoyancy which varies according to the pitch attitude in the water. At rest in the water a seaplane acts like a tail dragger. As it starts to move forward you must hold the yoke full back to counter the moment produced by the engine thrust. This raises the nose of the floats and there may be just as much wind-exposed side area ahead as there is behind producing virtually no weathervane effect. If this progresses into a deep plow the weathervaning can even be reversed! Finally, when the floats are moving fast enough to plane or up on-the-step, the effect of side winds can be almost the same as a taildragger again. Because of weathervaning there are only two practical taxiing speeds: slow and on-step although plowing is sometimes useful in turning.

DHC-3 Otter_FLOAT_17

Getting on the step requires the nose to be lowered and staying there is no easy task. You must use just the right amount of back pressure on the stick. Too much or too little will increase the drag and reduce speed. For taxiing, the throttle has to be reduced after you are on the step. Continuing on step with full power you will eventually reach the speed where the plane will lift itself off the water and then fly like a regular airplane. Lack of proper elevator control on a step taxi or takeoff run can result in porpoising which is a pitch oscillating condition that can increase in magnitude if you do not reduce elevator back pressure. Otherwise you may need to reduce power and abort the takeoff.

You may think that smooth water would be the best. Actually the rough water associated with a nice headwind allows you to takeoff at a lower waterspeed which reduces the drag on the floats. The fact that you are cutting along across the tops of the waves also reduces water drag. Depending upon the design of the floats, it is usually not recommended that you rotate as the plane lifts off the water.

Landing is made difficult by lack of visual contact with features on the ground and is particularly troublesome when coming in on glassy, smooth water. On the other hand, hitting rough waves at high speed can damage the floats, so you should always use the slowest possible water speed. Usually the waves will be caused by the wind, so even without a windsock you should be able to determine the proper heading for final approach. Never land parallel to the wave fronts rocking the boat is not a good idea.
So after landing what do you do? Once again you are at the mercy of the wind and with no ground-gear friction or brakes to help you steer. Sailing is a technique that allows you to take advantage of weathervaning and get where you want to dock, even by going backward in the water! After landing in a wind of, say, 20 knots you can set the engine to idle, and use the flight controls to turn the nose toward the dock. Go past the dock and then use power and control to finish.

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SAILING

Docking can be rather tricky because in a real plane you will be out of the cockpit standing on one of the floats. With the engine off, you may need a paddle (standard equipment on seaplanes) if you need just a bit more propulsion, or you might have to use your foot to keep the floats from hitting the dock too hard. There is a lot more to learn including the combined effects of currents and wind.

DHC-3 Otter_FLOAT_33

TAKEOFF

Here is how the takeoff goes. Once in the water, water rudders are lowered (more about that later) and gear is raised followed by a slow taxi out to the end of the takeoff area and a turn into the correct heading. At this point be sure the brakes are off. In the water, the brakes activate an anchor that will tie you to the spot you drop it. Now raise the water rudders, lower the flaps one notch, set the elevator trim for takeoff, and advance to full pitch and throttle. Pull back on the yoke to reduce drag by raising the leading edge of the pontoons. At about 40 knots, push the yoke forward to get the tail of the pontoons out of the water and have the ship plane on-the-step. At 60 knots the plane will lift off the water by itself. Come to think of it, this is quite a bit like a takeoff for a tail dragger, X-Plane has a default wave height which causes the ripples in the altitude, but I made the takeoff tests with little wind and wave height set to 0.3

Cessna_172SP_seaplane_2

TAKEOFF FROM THE WATER HAS FOUR CRITICAL STAGES

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START TAXI, UP ELEVATOR FOR PLOWING, DOWN ELEVATOR FOR ON-THE-STEP, AND THEN LIFT OFF

MODELING WATER RUDDERS
Real water rudders are usually placed at the rear of the pontoons or hull and are retractable so as not to be damaged or cause excessive drag during high speed operation. X-Plane has only one way to handle a water rudder. On the landing gear page, you can specify the longitudinal position, the area of the rudder, and the maximum angular movement. You have no control over the vertical position and X-Plane assumes that the water rudder is completely submerged if any part of the fuselage or floats is in the water.

LANDING HELP COMING SOON.

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Still having trouble? Duct Tape can help! no seriously check this out:

https://forums.x-plane.org/index.php?/files/file/20632-duct-tape-10/